Monday, August 2, 2021

Generator Guide

1-) Definitions

Amper (Current): The movement of the electric charge, that is, reaching from one place to another is called current.

VoltAmper: There must be a power difference between the two points in order to create current. This difference is called tension. The power of the electric current drawn from the system at a certain volt value is called VoltAmper. It is equal to the product of current and voltage.

Watt: The power of the electric current at a certain voltage value is called wattage.

AC: Alternating current (Electricity from the city grid)

DC: Direct current (Battery, electricity converted by some adapters)

AVR: Automatic Voltage Regulator is an electronic circuit that provides 220V 50Hz (or close) of the supplied electricity.

Power Factor: Generally it is around 0.8 0.9 in Generators. It is preferred to be close to 1.

Reactive Load: Extra energy used by some devices during the first run

Active Load: The electricity used by the device is the same from opening to closing.

Square, Modified Sine and Sine wave: Almost all electrical appliances in the house operate with Sine wave. This is the electricity coming from the city grid. Modified sinus is a form of square wave that is gradually reduced and a wave close to the sinus is created. I think we can give an example as follows, if you go up to a 10-step ladder one by one and go back one by one, you will get sine wave, 3 by 3 and if you go down, you will get a modified sine wave, you will get it all at once and you will get square wave. The hours that you will operate with the modified sine wave can go forward, the motorized devices may not work correctly (combi, refrigerator, ventilator), the drill can operate at a single speed, not at various speeds.

2-) What are the average electricity values ​​spent by household appliances?

Let’s first clarify the Active and reactive load we mentioned above:

Classic bulbs, electric heaters (kettle, electric stove, toaster) (Attention: turbo ovens are motorized, do not enter this class!) Constantly consume as much electricity as the watts written on the label.

Devices with a motor (fridge, freezer, fan, electric motor) and fluorescent lamps (I think this is also the saving bulbs, but I’m not sure, I would be happy if someone confirms it) and the UPS needs twice the power of writing on the label.

Devices such as submersible pumps, air conditioners, air compressors may require 3-5 times the take-off power of the writer on the label.

It is better to look at the label of the devices you will use when calculating your own energy needs.

3-) How do you calculate the total power you need?

3a-) The most important step to calculate the total power is to determine your need well. Decide well which devices to operate in case of downtime.

3b-) Take a paper pen and make a list. Write down the device name, energy requirement during normal operation, and First-time energy requirements. Write the start-up energy requirement not only for devices that need reactive energy, but for all, we will use the highest value here.

3c-) Take care to make calculations so that all devices are not open at the same time. For example, you can start the refrigerator for 2-3 hours after the interruption, until the engine stops completely, and then deactivate it again for a few hours.

3d-) Note that if there are old devices (such as a 10-year refrigerator) that have been used for a long time, they may burn slightly above the label value.

3e-) The maximum output power of the generators shows the electricity that it can give about half an hour. After this time, it switches to the nominal operating state and the amount of electricity it can deliver decreases. Pay attention to this value when buying.

Now, by going through the list you have prepared, gather the working powers of the devices that will work simultaneously to the bottom. Get the initial value of the device that will draw the most from the starting powers. For example, the total working power is 2000 watts and your device that needs the most starting power will spend 1500 watts. In total, it made 3500 watts, multiplying this value by 1.2 (if we leave a share for future needs, we would have made a good investment for the future, otherwise it may not be enough for you the next day tomorrow). In this example, the generator power you need will be 4200 Watts.

When making your list, pay attention to the following points;

– Which device do you need most to operate in case of power failure?

– How much power will the devices to be fed continuously from the generator need?

– What are the powers of the devices to be used intermittently?

4-) Generator, should I buy my UPS?

The generator can be used for long-term needs, UPS for short-term needs. A second advantage of UPS is that it is activated when the power goes off, it meets the uninterrupted energy need for devices such as computers (you have a file to save, etc …). It is as loud as a generator (I say as a generator because it is not completely silent. Online models have a fan, while most models do not have an “electricity off” warning signal that cannot be interrupted). However, buying a UPS that will go for a long time will be very expensive. You also need to replace your batteries approximately every 4 years. You can find detailed information about UPS at http://resim.donanimhaber.com/m_7175263/mpage_1/f_/key_//tm.htm#7175263. There is a nice guide here.

The advantage of the generator compared to UPS is that you can not only operate your refrigerator, but also your combi, refrigerator, etc. devices (it is also done in UPS, but you need to find a real sinewave UPS for the combi, you need a very powerful UPS to operate the refrigerator and this is seriously sound money)

5-) What is Digital Inverter Generator? How does it work?

Inverter generator is a relatively new technology. They have smaller sizes. Since they adjust the working speed according to the need for electricity, their fuel consumption and the noise they make are less.

First, a 3-phase AC generates electricity, then it converts it to DC, then this DC converts electricity into cleaner AC electricity. Thus, you will get a clean value of 220Volt 50Hz. Computer, Digital Combi etc … clean electricity is a very necessary feature for some sensitive devices.

6-) Where should I put the generator and what are the things I should be careful about in use? (CAUTION: Danger of carbon monoxide poisoning !!!)

6a-) Generators cannot be operated inside the house. It should not be operated in enclosed spaces such as balconies. You can hurt yourself, not to avoid any damage to this device!

6b-) It is best to have it outside the house. You should make sure that the house is located away from the door, the window and the fans that give the house air.

6c-) Carbon monoxide gases from exhaust cannot be seen (you can only see exhaust fumes) and they are odorless. Even if you don’t see and smell the smoke, you may have inhaled carbon monoxide. If you feel sluggish and weak, get fresh air immediately. Carbon monoxide sticks to red blood cells faster than oxygen. Therefore, if there is carbon monoxide in the environment, you are more likely to be poisoned.

6d-) If possible, put a carbon monoxide alarm in your environment (I will do it because I will put it in the balcony). (you can say you are saying you are putting it in the balcony but I am on the 4th floor I have no other chance. I will definitely put an alarm)

6e-) There is also the possibility of electric shock. Therefore, it may be a solution to cover it when using it in rainy weather, but you should pay attention to the carbon monoxide output.

6f-) Before refueling, turn off the generator and wait for it to cool down. Gasoline to be poured into the heat may shine.

7-) What are the points to be considered when buying a generator?

7a-) The db information given in the generators is given at a distance of 7 meters. Therefore, a generator that says 60 decibels does not produce 60db when you are near, it is the sound it makes when it is 7 meters away. It makes a sound around 90db with you. Consider this.

7b-) There is 10 times the difference between 60db device and 70db device. Therefore, if possible, don’t even think about what happens in 2-3 decibels. Take care to buy a quality brand with a digital inverter.

7c-) If you pay attention to the generator that you buy clean sine wave signal, you can operate your sensitive devices without installing a regulator, a sine wave online ups etc … Thus, you get rid of a second expense.

7d-) Digital inverter generators can be your preferred device because they can adjust their operating speed according to the load. They consume less fuel. Let’s think like this, you connected it to the boiler. I think the boiler does not burn 200 watts all the time, it increases to 200 watts when it pumps, but maybe it drops to 100 watts when the water does not pump and the fan is not working.

7e-) Inverter generators are lighter than others. If you are looking for something portable, this may be good.

7f-) Inverter generators are expensive, so if you are going to buy the device with a small budget, make sure it contains at least AVR.

7g-) There is a maximum period for generators to work at a time. There is also the maximum time they can work with a warehouse. When the fuel in the tank runs out, you need to wait for it to cool before refilling. It is also so when it gets warmer. You should also consider how long you will need to feed and determine a model accordingly.

7h-) Gasoline and oil should be mixed in certain proportions in 2-stroke generators. Operating problems arise when this ratio cannot be met. For this reason, you should choose 4-stroke. Of course, it is a budget issue, but it seems to me that it may be more logical to take 4 times even if it is the cheapest and it is an unknown brand.

😎 What is the difference of 2-stroke and 4-stroke?

This is a frequently asked question, in 2-stroke generators, gasoline and oil must be mixed in certain proportions. Operating problems arise when this ratio cannot be met. You do not need to make such an adjustment at 4 times.

9-) Is it gasoline? Diesel? Is it natural gas?

Diesel Generators are more preferred in closed areas since the fuel is not flammable.

Gasoline Generators can be found for smaller needs, but diesel products generally start from 4-5 kva or something, I think there is no smaller capacity.

Since fuel is more economical, if you have the possibility and there is a model that meets your needs, you can choose diesel.

I have never done research on natural gas, it doesn’t make sense. I guess it can only be used in stationary systems (apartment etc.) where fuel can come cheap.

Source: https://forum.donanimhaber.com

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